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   2022| April-June  | Volume 12 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 10, 2022

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Metacaspase Deletion Increases Carbonylated and Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Proteins associated with Protein Synthesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mohammed Abdul Sattar Khan, Meghan Morgan, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Mohammed Akbar, Gilles J. Guillemin, Byoung-Joon Song
April-June 2022, 12(2):39-45
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an oxidant which could induce posttranslational modifications of proteins (PTMPs) in cells. It is still unknown that carbonylated proteins (CPs) were accumulated in caspase-suppressed leukemia cells or caspase-deleted Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Hence, we aimed to identify CPs and elucidate the role of metacaspase in regulating PTMPs and identify/compare the differentially expressed PTMPs in Δyca1 mutant compared to wild type with/without H2O2 exposure by proteomics approach. We found that deletion of the metacaspase gene (MCG) in yeast resulted in accumulation of high amounts of PTMPs associated with protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism compared to H2O2, which suggests that MCG is involved in the regulation of PTMPs and it could protect yeast from oxidative stress.
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Antiproliferative Effects of Olanzapine against MCF-7 Cells and Its Molecular Interactions with Survivin
V. A. Varahi Vedam, Poojith Nuthalapati, Mohan Krishna Ghanta, Darling Chellathai David, M. Vijayalakshmi, Krishna Murthy Potla, Y. Sheena Mary
April-June 2022, 12(2):72-78
Background: Epidemiologic findings revealed approximately one-third of patients with breast cancer develop brain metastases. Recent research has found that schizophrenia patients who take antipsychotic medications on a long-term basis have a decreased risk of cancers than normal individuals. This serendipitous anticancer action of antipsychotic medications is now being investigated by many studies. The ability of these drugs to penetrate the blood–brain barrier may target brain metastases. We investigated antiproliferative activity of antipsychotic drug. The present study aimed to determine the antiproliferative effects of olanzapine against MCF-7 cells and also to examine its molecular interactions with survivin. Methods: The antiproliferative effects of olanzapine were demonstrated using MTT assay and molecular interactions were analyzed using AutoDock Vina ver4.0 between olanzapine (PubChem CID − 135398745) and survivin (PDB ID − 1E31). These molecular interactions were also compared with tamoxifen (PubChem CID: 2733526). Results: We found that olanzapine has extensive antiproliferative effects against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 of 10.9 g/mL. We also discovered that olanzapine had possible interactions with the survivin protein at Lys15, Phe86, and Val89 amino acid residues, which could be related to effects of olanzapine on MCF-7 cell viability. Conclusion: Our research establishes that olanzapine has promising anticancer properties against breast tumors, with prospective application to target brain metastases in patients with breast cancer.
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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depression among Medical Interns during the Third Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic in Oman
Tamadhir Al-Mahrouqi, Manar Ahmed Kamal, Mohamed Elsayed, Hamed Al-Sinawi
April-June 2022, 12(2):51-65
Objectives: Medical interns were among the frontline healthcare workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and represented a special group of key workers. They were both learners and care providers, experiencing great challenges during the pandemic. This study examined the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among Omani medical interns during the COVID-19 pandemic and determined the independent predictors of depression and anxiety among the study sample. Methods: This online cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of Omani medical interns from 2020 to 2021, using a self-reported questionnaire that included the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) information related to vaccination status and caring for patients with COVID-19. Results: A total of 193 interns participated in this study (81% females). The median age was 26 years. Female participants scored higher for both anxiety (P = 0.200) and depression scales (P = 0.183). Most of the participants (143, 74.1%) had a negative result following testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with significant association with vaccination status (P = 0.004), especially for participants who had taken the first dose (51%). Participants who had the first dose of the vaccine significantly tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (P = 0.053) compared to participants who had not had the vaccine. The GAD-7 and PHQ-9 showed that 150 (79%) and 91 (47%) participants had mild to severe anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has directly contributed to the development of psychologic distress among medical interns, which can lead to adverse outcomes. This study emphasizes the importance of including disaster management and psychologic well-being training program during the internship to help medical interns better cope in crises, such as a pandemic.
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Cytotoxicity Activity of Several Medicinal Plants Grow in Mangrove Forest against Human’s Cervical (HELA), Breast (T47D), and Colorectal (WiDr) Cancer Cell Lines
Yanieta Arbiastutie, Farah Diba, Masriani Masriani
April-June 2022, 12(2):46-50
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Nutritional Impact of Millet-based Foods on Pregnant and Nursing Women from Anganwadi Centers in Mahabubnagar
Devulapalli Sharat Dhruthi, Devaki Gokhale
April-June 2022, 12(2):66-71
Background: In 1975, the Government of India initiated the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme. The Supplementary Nutrition Program (SNP) under the ICDS provides meals to pregnant and nursing women at Anganwadi centres (AWCs) to improve their nutritional status. Aim: The current interventional study focused on identifying nutritional impact of millet-based foods (such as millet health mix, millet energy bars, finger millet cutlets, and finger millet biscuits) pre- and postintervention on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and hemoglobin of pregnant women and nursing mothers. Methods: Pregnant (n = 22) and nursing women (n = 16) from four AWCs of Gangapur village, Mahabubnagar, Telangana voluntarily participated in this study. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS and P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean weight gain for pregnant women was 3.63 ± 5.29 kg with mean hemoglobin improvement of 0.5 ± 1.30 g/dL. Similarly, the mean weight gain for nursing women was 3.0 ± 6.00 kg and mean hemoglobin improvement of 0.9 ± 1.60 g/dL. A paired t test analysis revealed statistically significant change in weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.002) and BMI (P = 0.001, P =0.004) pre- and postintervention at 95% CI, indicating a positive impact of these millet-based foods on weight and BMI. Conclusion: Since these millet-based foods have a positive impact on the nutritional status of pregnant women, it is recommended that these foods be incorporated into the SNP Program for ICDS beneficiaries.
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Food Consumption among Under-five Children in Agats, Asmat District, Papua Province
Erfi Prafiantini, Okky Lupita Sari, Nisrina Hanisa, Diyah Eka Andayani, Eghar Anugrapaksi, Lestari Octavia
April-June 2022, 12(2):75-84
Context: Malnutrition outbreak in 2018 caused increased morbidity and mortality of Asmat children. Many studies indicated that malnourished children should receive adequate nutrients. Aim: The study aims to analyze food consumption among under-five children in Asmat. Settings and design: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Agats subdistrict, Asmat district, and Papua province, in July 2018 and included 62 under-five children. Children were selected using purposive sampling from five villages. Materials and methods: The primary data were collected by interview, direct measurement, questionnaire fulfillment consisting of general, anthropometric, and food consumption data. Statistical analysis used: descriptive data, composed of the characteristics of children, children’s nutritional status, and food consumption. Results: The average energy intake was 561.7 ± 335.3 kcal/day. The mean carbohydrate and protein were 93.3 ± 52.9 and 18.2 ± 11.2 g, respectively. The median fat intake was 7.53 (2.6, 16.9) g and fiber was 1.63 (1.0, 2.9) g/day. The median iron and zinc were 1.5 (0.8, 2.6) g and 1.5 (0.8, 2.3) g. The average folic acid intake was 36.4 ± 25.2 g. Conclusion: Compared to the Indonesian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the percentage of children’s energy (93.5%), protein (75.8%), fat (96.8%), carbohydrate (83.9%), fiber (91.9%), iron (88.7%), folic acid (98.4%), and zinc (88.7%) intakes was included as below of Indonesian RDA category. These results can be used to make appropriate dietary recommendations, which will be used as a substantial improvement in community service programs.
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Oral Aspects in Diabetes: Decoding the Silent Killer
Krishnendu Debnath, Debanjan Das, Nilanjana Goswami, Sudipto Barai, Kamlesh Mandriya, Swet Nisha
April-June 2022, 12(2):85-91
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases. The potential complications associated with it also reflect on oral health. This review illustrates oral aspects of diabetes and its implications. Methods: This narrative review aims at disclosing the pathogenesis, numerous oral aspects of diabetes, diagnosis, management, and patient education. Articles focusing on the oral aspect of diabetes and its management were considered, and the kaleidoscope model for oral health care is also proposed. Results: The review gives us an idea about the inter-relationship between oral and diabetes mellitus. It emphasizes the need for medical and dental collaborations for better systemic and oral health. Awareness and education of oral aspects in diabetes can help prevent oral complications related to diabetes and maintain oral health. Discussion: Understanding the oral implications of diabetes mellitus will help us better understand the disease. Furthermore, it can be a game changer for patient tutelage by the sense of various models, advanced diagnostic methods, and specialized interventions.
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