Users Online: 406

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 305-318

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cognitive Impairment and its Effect on Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the TILDA Cohort

1 School of Medicine, RCSI-Bahrain, Manama, Bahrain
2 School of Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD), Dublin, Ireland

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Al-Hindawi
School of Medicine, RCSI-Bahrain, Manama
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_59_22

Rights and Permissions

Objectives: Examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment within Wave 1 of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (TILDA) cohort and its relationship with comorbidities and lifestyle factors. The effect of cognitive impairment on quality-of-life scores was also investigated. Methods: A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from Wave 1 of the TILDA cohort was undertaken. Results: Prevalence of cognitive impairment ranged between 5.8% and 51.2%, depending on the instrument used (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA], respectively). Having hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–2.08), being a past or current smoker (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.01–1.55) and having low physical activity (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.64–2.53) increased the odds of being classified as cognitively impaired (MMSE <25). Similarly, being obese (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.17–1.47), having hypertension (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.27–1.57), and having diabetes (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.40–2.09) increased the odds of cognitive impairment (MoCA <26). High cholesterol was associated with a protective effect (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.63–0.98) under MMSE <25 classification while, problematic alcohol behavior reduced the odds of being classified as cognitively impaired using MoCA <26 by 35% (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55–0.76). Depression was not associated with increased odds of cognitive decline. Lastly, mean quality of life (QoL) scores decreases as severity of cognitive impairment increases from normal to moderate cognitive impairment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Several modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline were identified, including smoking, low physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Policies aimed at reducing the prevalence of these risk factors in the population might reduce the impact of cognitive decline on public health.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded37    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal