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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 206-211

Pattern and Correlates of Physical Activity Among Nurses from Tertiary Care Hospital


1 Department of Community Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed To Be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed To Be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission21-May-2022
Date of Decision22-Jun-2022
Date of Acceptance24-Jun-2022
Date of Web Publication3-Oct-2022

Correspondence Address:
MD, PhD, DGO Supriya S Patil
Dean Academics, Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed To Be University, Karad, Maharashtra 415539
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_30_22

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   Abstract 


Background: Physical inactivity is considered as one of the important modifiable risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. Nurses play an important role in the healthcare system. Long working hours could be stressful physically and psychologically demanding patient care. Considering these, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern and correlates of physical activity among nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 nurses working in Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Center, Karad. Practice of physical activity was collected using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) which measured the physical activity in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20. Results: Total 125 nurses participated in the study out of which 119 (95.2%) were females and six (4.8%) were males. Moderate level of physical activity was seen in 77.6% of participants, 16.0% showed low level of physical activity, and vigorous levels of physical activity were seen in 6.4% of participants. A statistically significant association was observed between physical activity and age. Conclusion: Majority of nurses were involved in moderate-intensity physical activity. Age appeared to be a determining factor for participation in physical activity.

Keywords: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), metabolic equivalents (MET), nurses, physical activity


How to cite this article:
Da Silva D, Patil SS, Durgawale PM, Patil SR. Pattern and Correlates of Physical Activity Among Nurses from Tertiary Care Hospital. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2022;12:206-11

How to cite this URL:
Da Silva D, Patil SS, Durgawale PM, Patil SR. Pattern and Correlates of Physical Activity Among Nurses from Tertiary Care Hospital. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 8];12:206-11. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2022/12/3/206/357218




   Introduction Top


Regular physical activity is an important aspect for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth largest contributor to global mortality and morbidity.[1] In the 21st century, everyday life offers fewer opportunities for physical activity, and the resultant sedentary lifestyles have serious consequences on public health.[2] Due to these reasons, international public health and health promotion organizations have listed physical inactivity as the most remarkable health risk factor across the lifespan. Therefore, promoting physical activity is essential for public health and health promotion strategies.[3]

Physical activity has been defined as any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure including activities undertaken while working, playing, carrying out household chores, traveling, and engaging in recreational pursuits.[4] WHO recommendations for adults aged between 18 and 64 years should do regular moderate physical activities for at least 150 minutes or vigorous-intensity physical activity for 75 minutes throughout the week.[5]

Since, nurses spend a majority of a patients’ stay interacting with the patient thus, they play an integral role in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior to patients and therefore they are an important part of a wider public health drive to encourage more people to become physically active.[6],[7] For this, it is important for them to first look into their own health and then guide patients to adopt healthy lifestyles through behaviour modification and intervention, the more they carry out good personal health habits, the more likely they are to counsel their patients on a range of behaviors such as physical activity, healthy lifestyle, avoiding smoking alcohol abuse, and balanced diet.[8]

Nursing jobs involve working in shifts and long work hours which are often highly stressful as they are physically and psychologically demanding. Such factors may be associated with reduced physical activities among nurses.[9] Considering the importance of physical activity, this study is conducted to study the pattern and the sociodemographic factors associated with physical activity among nurses.


   Materials and Methods Top


An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level of physical activity among nurses working in Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Center, Karad, Maharashtra. The study was conducted over a period of 6 months. Calculated sample size was 125 using the formula Z21–a/2*pq/L2,[10] where, L was taken as 7, P = prevalence of moderate physical activity, 16.3%. The sampling frame included 29 wards and intensive care unit (ICU), 17 operation theaters, and 10 out patient department (OPDs) in Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Center. There were a total of 520 nurses, 444 in the 29 wards and ICU, 42 nurses in operation theatre, and 34 nurses in OPD. The sample size comprised of 125 nurses; a list of all nurses was taken from each of the respective wards, ICU, operation theatre (OT), and OPD and using systematic random sampling 87 nurses from ward and ICU, 20 nurses from operation theater, and 18 nurses from OPD were selected. The exclusion criteria were subjects who were pregnant and postpartum and subjects with illnesses that restricted mobility (arthritis and any injuries to muscle, ligament, and tendons). Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. Confidentiality of respondents was maintained and participation was voluntarily after explaining the purpose of the research study in local language and written consent was taken. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information on demographic data and levels of physical activity using 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ).[11] Show cards with photographs of different physical activity were used. Statistical analysis was done using software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, IBM SPSS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, version 20). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Fisher exact test were used to determine the association between variables. The level of significance (P-value) was set at 0.05. Descriptive data were presented in the form of mean ± standard deviation (SD).


   Results Top


Among the 125 study participants, 78% were involved in moderate-intensity activity, 16% in low-intensity activity, and 6% were involved in vigorous-intensity activity [Figure 1]. Among the study participants, 119 (95.2%) were females and six (4.8%) were males. It was observed that among those performing nonvigorous-intensity activity, 113 (96.6%) were females. Significant association was noted between sex and physical activity [Table 1]. It was noted that majority of participants, 102 (81.6%), were in the age group of 21 to 40 years. Among them, 95 (81.2%) participants were performing nonvigorous-intensity physical activity. In the same age group of 21 to 40 years, seven (87.5%) participants were involved in doing vigorous-intensity activity [Table 2]. At work, moderate-intensity physical activity showed a statistical significance with age (P = 0.000). It was noted that majority of participants performing moderate-intensity physical activity at work were in the age group of 21 to 40 years (99, 86.8%), and least were seen in the age group of 51 to 60 years (15, 13.2%). Recreational vigorous-intensity physical activity showed statistically significant association with sex (P=0.011) where two (50.0%) females and two (50.0%) males were involved. Marital status showed a significant association with recreational vigorous intensity physical activity in which all participants were unmarried or widow 4(100.0%) (p=0.003) [Table 3]. The mean days spent at work doing moderate-intensity activity, were more among female nurses in the age group of 31 to 40 years, possessing MSc degree, belonging to Muslim and other religion, and widowed, and the mean minutes spent doing physical activity was seen in nurses belonged to the age group of 31 to 40 years, possessing MSc degree, widowed, and Muslim and other religion.
Figure 1 Distribution of study participants based on levels of physical activity (N = 125).

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Table 1 Sex and physical activity wise distribution of study population

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Table 2 Age and physical activity wise distribution of study population

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Table 3 Sociodemographic factor wise distribution of physical activity at work, commuting, and recreational activities

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During commuting, the mean days spent were more among Christians and widowed and the mean minutes were more among auxiliary nurse-midwife (ANM) nurses and widowed.

During recreational vigorous-intensity activities, the mean days and minutes spent were seen among male nurses, possessing MSc degree, Christian, and widowed. For moderate-intensity recreational activities, the mean days and minutes spent were more among male nurses, unmarried, possessing MSc degree, and Christian [Table 4]. The total mean metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes at work were more among females in the age group of 31 to 40 years, those possessing MSc degree, and Muslim and other religion. Statistical significance was observed among the mean MET minutes at work and gender (P ≤ 0.0001), age (P ≤ 0.0001), religion (P ≤ 0.0001), and education (P ≤ 0.0001). For commuting, the mean MET minutes per week were high among ANM nurses. Statistically significant difference was observed in mean MET minutes for commuting with education (P = 0.0019). For recreational activities, the mean MET minutes spent doing were more among males, Christians, widowed, and those who have MSc degree. For total physical activity, the mean MET minutes per week were noted to have a significant difference with gender (P = 0.0001), age (P =0.0001), and education (P =0.0001) showing that overall males in the age group 31 to 40 years having MSc degree carried out activity for more minutes [Table 5].
Table 4 Sociodemographic factor wise distribution of duration (in days and minutes) spent on physical activity at work, commuting, and recreational activities by the study participants

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Table 5 Physical activity of study participants in mean metabolic equivalents per week

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   Discussion Top


The present study was carried out among nurses working in a tertiary care hospital to assess the pattern and the correlates of physical activity in Western Maharashtra.

In the present study of 125 nurses, majority (77.6%) were involved in moderate level of physical activity. A study conducted in the United States among nurses showed that majority of nurses were involved in moderate-intensity activity.[12] Among other health professionals’ studies, similar results were seen in a study conducted by Srilatha et al.[1] among dental health professionals, where most of the participants were engaged in moderate activity, the reason could be that the study population included were employed in sedentary occupation categories. A previous study carried out by Altaf et al.[13] observed similar findings among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Studies conducted by Krishnakumar et al.[14] and Deepthi et al.[15] showed similar findings. While in another study carried out by Malik et al.,[7] 48.6% of nurses did not meet the public health recommendations of levels of physical activity, the reason being lack of time, tiredness, and having no motivation. In a study done by Jose and Sruthi,[16] most participants were involved in low physical activity, the reason being that the study population included, 2nd and 3rd year MBBS students, are more involved in academics and other stress factors, resulting in decreased physical activity. Studies done by Kunene and Taukobong[4] and Singh and Purohit[17] which were conducted among various health professionals, showed low levels of physical activity. There was a statistically significant relationship between the level of physical activity and age, as the participants’ age increases the level of physical activity decreased. Similar findings were reported by Kunene and Taukobong[4] and Patil et al.[18] A study done by Philbrick et al.[19] showed that nurses aged ≥55 years showed highest total physical activity levels.

This study showed that age and gender significantly associated with physical activity which was similar to a study done by Srilatha et al.,[1] where significant difference was noted with gender, age, and employment.

When different domains of physical activity were compared in this study, duration of work-related physical activity was more when compared with that of recreational or travel-related physical activity, which could reflect limited access and availability of leisure time. A study done by Anjana et al.[20] conducted among adults ≥ 20 years of age in four regions of India showed that males spent more time in moderate to vigorous-intensity activity at work compared to females across all four regions. Similar findings were observed in a study done by Srilatha et al.[1]When total mean MET’s minutes per week was accounted, male nurses performed overall high MET minutes per week activity as compared to their female counterparts, which might suggest that maybe males are involved in more outdoor activities, like sports. A study carried out among physiotherapists in Rwanda showed that males spent more MET minutes per week at work and recreational activities while women spent more MET minutes during transportation.[21] A study in Hyderabad among dental professionals concluded that the total mean minutes spent doing physical activity were more in the age group of 31 to 40 years. A study done in Saudi Arabia among nurses showed high MET hours in the age group <30 years.[22] Present study showed that those with MSc degree performed more work-related physical activity in comparison with others while a study conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia among nurses showed that nurses with diploma were engaged in work-related physical activity, the reasons being diploma nurses are directly assigned to take care of patients, assisting with births, and wiping patients in bed.[22]


   Conclusion Top


Most of the nursing professionals at Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Center are involved in moderate-level physical activity. Age appeared to be a determining factor in participation in physical activity. Males were more engaged in recreational activity whereas, females carried out more activities at work. Male participants were more engaged in recreational activity of vigorous and moderate intensity while, the female participants were more engaged in work-related activity of moderate intensity. It is important for nurses to practice their own self-care by engaging in exercise, proper nutrition, and demonstrating work–life balance both for the sake of their own health and to be role models for creating awareness among patients. Initiatives like walking and running marathons need to be conducted frequently by the institution to help keep up their motivation.

Acknowledgment

Authors would like to thank the participants who made the study possible, as well as postgraduate and PhD students of Department of Community Medicine, Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Karad, Maharashtra for their support during the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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Altaf H, Want FA, Alris FF, Alrayes MF, Alenzi MJ. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of physical activity among primary health care physicians in Aljouf region of Saudi Arabia. Mater Sociomed 2015;27:263-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Padmapriya K, Krishna P, Rasu T. Prevalence and patterns of physical activity among medical students in Bangalore, India. Electronic Physician 2013;5:606-10.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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