|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 50-56
Glycemic Index of Commonly Consumed Snack Foods in Oman
Amanat Ali1, Mariam S Al-Hakmani2, Mostafa I Waly2, Musthafa Mohamed Essa3
1 School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario; Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Canada
2 Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
3 Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University; Ageing and Dementia Research Group, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, Sultanate of Oman
|Date of Submission||19-Jan-2020|
|Date of Decision||23-Jan-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||02-Feb-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||10-Apr-2020|
Visiting Research Professor Amanat Ali
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Objective: Study the effect of Omani coffee on the glycemic responses and glycemic index (GI) of commonly consumed snack foods in Oman. Methods: We evaluated 9 Omani snack foods including doughnut, croissant, cheese, chicken and fried egg sandwiches, sambosa (vegetables), fried and boiled vermicelli, white bread with red beans for their proximate composition and GI. The proximate composition was determined according to AOAC, whereas GI was measured in 12 healthy human volunteers as described by Wolever et al. Results: The proximate composition of snack foods differed significantly (P < 0.05). The moisture, crude protein and fat contents in foods ranged from 21.9 to 67.5%, 4.3 to 17% and 2.7 to 23.4 %, respectively. Almost similar blood glucose responses were observed when snack foods were given with either water or Omani coffee. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed in the GI of these foods, which ranged between medium and high GI category. The GI of these foods (with water) ranged between 60 and 75, whereas with Omani coffee the GI values ranged between 64 and 78. Higher GI values were observed for doughnut and cheese sandwich, whereas sambosa (vegetables) showed the lowest value. Overall, no significant (P < 005) differences were observed in the GI of snack foods when served either with water or with Omani coffee. Conclusion: The GI of Omani snack foods differed significantly. However, Omani coffee did not affect the GI of these snack foods.
Keywords: Glycemic index, Omani coffee, proximate composition, snack foods
|How to cite this article:|
Ali A, Al-Hakmani MS, Waly MI, Essa MM. Glycemic Index of Commonly Consumed Snack Foods in Oman. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2020;10:50-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Ali A, Al-Hakmani MS, Waly MI, Essa MM. Glycemic Index of Commonly Consumed Snack Foods in Oman. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 May 17];10:50-6. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2020/10/2/50/282288
| Introduction|| |
Drastic changes have occurred in the lifestyle and food consumption patterns of Omani people over the past years. Although there has been a decline in infectious diseases in Oman, the rate of diet and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, heart diseases and cancer has increased.,, The higher prevalence of NCDs has been associated with sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy dietary habits., The results of our latest study suggest that high daily caloric intake increases the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), whereas increased intake of vegetables reduces the risk. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are highly prevalent among the Middle Eastern populations. The prevalence of diabetes in Oman has increased during the last decade and it is expected to rise further in 2030., By adopting simple preventative approaches such as dietary and lifestyle modifications, one can reduce the risk of chronic disease.,,,
Glycemic index (GI) of foods is a valuable method to classify the starchy foods based on their glycemic responses during the postprandial period., The use of this concept in daily meal planning may help the diabetic patients to manage their hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic responses and lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart diseases and cancer.,,, The data from various epidemiological studies and controlled randomized clinical trials show that the low GI diets may not only improve the glycemic control in diabetic subjects,, but may also have beneficial effects in normal healthy subjects in lowering the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart diseases, and cancers., The GI of foods should therefore be considered as important criteria in the dietary management and prevention of obesity, diabetes, coronary heart diseases and cancers.,,,,
In the globally changing food environment, snacking has become very common and Oman is no exception to it. Snack foods have been variably defined in different countries and cultures., In general, the terms “snack” is used to describe the foods eaten in-between 3 regular daily meals, whereas snacking refers to frequently eating small portions of foods throughout the day without any set schedule. Depending upon the type, nature and origin of snack food, it can be either energy-dense or nutrient-dense. The people eat snack foods for many different reasons, to fulfill their hunger, for pleasure, to enjoy taste, flavour, texture and other characteristics of foods, to release stress and pass time when bored or to satisfy their psychological behaviours. The snacks containing high amounts of sugar and fat, however, contribute to significant amounts of calories without adding much nutrients. The quality of snack foods and the frequency of their consumption, however, determines their usefulness in meeting the daily nutrient and energy needs. Snacking didn’t show a consistent relationship with body weight in adults or children., Snacking has been reported to contribute to increased energy intake among the US overweight and obese adolescents as compared to normal weight. The choice of consumer is therefore crucial in determining their nutritional effects in terms of meeting nutrient needs or increasing the risk of weight gain and obesity. The small portion size and low energy-dense snacks were found to be positively associated with higher diet quality and healthy eating index-2015 scores among US preschoolers. Healthier snack foods can have favourable effect on satiety, glucose homoeostasis and may reduce the risk of obesity., As the consumer’s demand for high-quality snack foods is increasing, it is important to have a database on the GI of snack foods, so that consumers can make a nutritionally healthy choice in selecting them to prepare their daily meal plans. A few studies have reported the GI of snack foods consumed in various parts of the world.,,,, Most of the snack foods in Oman are generally consumed with traditional Omani coffee. It has been shown that ingestion of caffeinated coffee may affect the insulin sensitivity and lead to impaired glucose homeostasis, whereas data from other studies indicate that consuming caffeinated coffee didn’t affect the insulin sensitivity or mediators of insulin resistance, insulinemic responses and GI of foods.,, In our previous studies, we determined the GI of some local Omani foods.,, This information is however, limited and doesn’t grasp all the Omani foods, which are consumed in different ways and their GI needs to be evaluated. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of Omani coffee on the glycemic responses and GI of nine commonly consumed snack foods in Oman.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Collection and preparation of food samples
Nine different types of snack foods (doughnut, croissant, cheese, chicken and fried egg sandwiches, vegetables sambosa, fried and boiled vermicelli and white bread with red beans) commonly consumed in Oman, were evaluated in this study. Some of the ready-made foods such as doughnuts, croissant, chicken sandwiches, and vegetable sambosa were purchased from the local market, while the other foods were prepared according to the standard local recipes as described by the Ministry of Health Nutrition Bulletin for Food Recipes. All these foods are commonly consumed in Oman and a few of them sometime may also serve as the main meal. For example, the sweet vermicelli (local names “Swayweih” or “Ballaleet”) is mainly cooked with sugar and is prepared both as fried and in boiled form. The cooked red beans make another important common dish that is prepared in almost every home in Oman and is mostly consumed with different types of breads.
The proximate chemical composition (moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein and total fat) was determined according to the methods of AOAC. The values for nitrogen free extract (NFE) expressed as total carbohydrates were calculated by difference (100 minus other components i.e., moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash and crude fibre). The values are expressed as g per 100g of food on as such basis. Total dietary fibre was determined according to the AOAC official enzymatic-gravimetric-MES-TRIS buffer method 991.43. The gross energy value of food (kcal/100g) was determined based on the amount of total carbohydrates, crude protein and fat present by multiplying with the factors 4, 4 and 9, respectively. The available carbohydrates were determined by subtracting the amount of dietary fiber from total carbohydrates.
Preparation of Omani coffee and determination of caffeine
Omani coffee was prepared according to the standard recipes for Omani foods by boiling 30g of medium roasted ground Arabian coffee (obtained from the local market) in 800 mL of water for 20 minutes and then 5g of grounded cardamom was added and continued boiling for another 5 minutes. The Omani coffee was decanted to remove the sediments and the supernatant was gushed into a traditional coffee pot (known as “Dellah”) and 2 tsp. of rose water was added to it. The caffeine content in the Omani coffee was determined according to the method of Van Atta. The average concentration of caffeine in Omani coffee was found to be 1.73 mg/ml. The volunteers were given 130 ml of Omani coffee that contained on the average 225 mg of caffeine.
Determination of Glycemic Index of snack foods
Twelve normal healthy non-smoker university students, free from any apparent symptoms of diseases, were recruited as volunteers for measuring the GI. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to rule out diabetes. The average age, weight, height and BMI of the volunteers were 25.3±2.2 years, 59.5±15.6 kg, 1.6±0.1 m and 22.9±3.5 kg/m2 respectively. They were briefed about the study and a signed written consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee of College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.
To measure the GI portions of test food and standard reference food (glucose) containing 50g of available carbohydrates were given to volunteers in a random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast of ≥10 hours. A standard drink of either pure water (250 ml) or 130 mL of Omani coffee was given with each test food on separate occasions. The volunteers were asked to comfortably eat the test foods within 5-6 minutes. The GI test foods were determined in one series of tests either with water or with Omani coffee. The test for standard reference food (glucose) was repeated thrice (in the beginning, middle and end) and the average values were used to calculate the GI of foods. The blood glucose level was measured at 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the intake of foods, using SureStep Brand Professional Blood Glucose Meter that employs a dry reagent technology based on the glucose oxidase method. The calculations, for the incremental area under the curve (IAUC), were carried out according to the method described by Wolever and colleagues. The GI values were calculated as:
Glycemic Index = (IAUC test food / IAUC standard reference food) × 100
Statistical analysis of the data
All the data was entered into Microsoft Excel Software and a common dataset was created and transferred to SPSS v.19. Descriptive analysis and one-way analysis of variance of data was carried out to calculate the average means and standard error of mean (SEM). The means were compared using least significant difference (LSD) test as described by Snedecor and Cochran. Data Desk Software program was used for repeated measurement analysis. In a repeated measurement analysis, the same subject was observed at different levels of one factor called "repeat" in the multivariate form (within-subjects design) but at the same level of at least one grouping or treatment factor (between-subjects design). Overall, the results deemed statistically significant at P < 0.05.
| Results and Discussion|| |
Proximate chemical composition of commonly consumed snack foods in Oman
The proximate composition of commonly consumed Omani snack foods is shown in [Table 1]. The snack foods varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their chemical composition. The moisture content varied between 21.9 to 67.5%, whereas the crude protein and total fat ranged from 4.3 to 17 and 2.7 to 23.4 %, respectively. The cooked red beans showed the highest crude fiber (6.96 ± 0.7 g/100g) and dietary fiber contents (7.6 ± 0.1 g/100g). The lowest ash content (0.1%) was found in boiled vermicelli. The highest energy value (403 ± 8 kcal/100g) was observed in croissant followed by doughnut (376 ± 7 kcal/100g). The variability in chemical composition of these snack foods may be attributed to their ingredient composition and preparation methods. Our results are in line with the findings reported in earlier studies, which provide some information regarding the chemical composition of some traditional dishes from Oman as well as from other Arab Gulf countries but do not cover all the foods consumed in this region.,,,, The data from the present study adds new first-hand information to nutritional database on chemical composition and GI of commonly consumed foods in Oman.
|Table 1 Proximate chemical composition (g/100 g), dietary fibre (g/100 g) and total energy (kcal/100 g) (n = 3)|
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Glycemic Index of commonly consumed snack foods served with water
The average fasting blood glucose values (0 minutes) and blood glucose responses after the ingestion of standard food (glucose) and different test foods when served with water at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes are shown in [Figure 1]. The average fasting blood glucose value of volunteers (97 mg/dL) was within the normal range. The volunteers did not show any impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) responses as indicated by the glucose response curve of the standard reference food (glucose). Different snack foods produced variable glycemic responses [Figure 1]. The highest blood glucose response after 15 minutes of ingestion of foods was observed with fried vermicelli, followed by boiled vermicelli, white bread with red beans, cheeses sandwich, fried egg sandwich and others. This trend however changed subsequently at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion of food. After 120 minutes all foods showed almost similar blood glucose values as at the baseline. The GI of these foods ranged between 60 and 75 [Table 2]. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the GI of these foods. The highest average GI value of 75 was observed for doughnut, while the lowest average GI value of 60 was noted for sambosa (vegetables). No significant (P < 0.05) differences were however observed in the GI values for doughnut, cheese sandwich, fried egg sandwich and fried vermicelli. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were also detected between the GI values of fried and boiled vermicelli. However, no significant (P < 0.05) differences were noticed in the GI values for croissant, chicken sandwich and boiled vermicelli. Similarly, the GI values of sambosa (vegetables) and white bread with red beans, did not differ significantly (P > 0.05).
|Figure 1 Average blood glucose responses of commonly consumed Omani snack foods with water.|
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|Table 2 Glycemic index of commonly consumed snack foods when served with water (n = 3)|
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Glycemic Index of commonly consumed snack foods served with Omani coffee
During this phase, the test foods were given with 130 ml of Omani coffee, which on the average contained 225 mg of caffeine. The average fasting blood glucose levels (at 0 minutes) and the blood glucose responses after the ingestion of different test foods with 130 ml of Omani coffee at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes are shown in [Figure 2]. The standard reference food (glucose) was given with water. Different snack foods produced variable glycemic responses when served with Omani coffee. However, these responses remained within the normal ranges and were almost similar to those when these foods were consumed with water [Figure 2]. The highest blood glucose response, after 15 minutes of ingestion of snack foods with Omani coffee, was observed for fried vermicelli, followed by cheese sandwich, boiled vermicelli, white bread with red beans, fried egg sandwich and others. This trend, however, changed subsequently at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after food ingestion. The blood glucose levels after 120 minutes of food ingestion, were almost similar to the baseline levels (fasting blood glucose). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the GI values of these foods, which ranged between 64 and 78 [Table 3]. The highest average GI value of 75 was observed for cheese sandwich, whereas the lowest GI value of 57 was for sambosa (vegetables). The GI values for doughnut, cheese sandwich, fried egg sandwich and chicken sandwich did not differ (P < 0.05). Similarly, no significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed among the GI values of croissant, fried and boiled vermicelli, and white bread with red beans.
|Figure 2 Average blood glucose responses of commonly consumed Omani snack foods with Omani coffee.|
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|Table 3 Glycemic index of commonly consumed snack foods with Omani coffee|
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The comparative data on the glycemic index of different snack foods
The comparative data on the GI of different snack foods, when served with either water or Omani coffee is given in [Table 4]. Overall, no significant (P < 005) differences were observed in the GI of foods when served with water or with Omani coffee. The data on the glycemic responses of these foods in individual subjects was analyzed by repeated measurement analysis. Significant differences were observed in individual glycemic responses for the same food as well as for GI of individual foods. Ingestion of caffeinated coffee has been shown to affect the insulin sensitivity and may lead to impaired glucose homeostasis., However, the data from several other studies indicate that consuming caffeinated coffee didn’t affect the insulin sensitivity as well as the mediators of insulin resistance, insulinemic responses and GI of foods., The results of our study did not show any difference in the GI of commonly consumed Omani snack foods, when served with either water or Omani coffee. This may be due to various factors in particular, the variability in the amount of caffeine consumption by the subjects in each study or the method of coffee preparation and the presence of bioactive components in coffee., The amount of Omani coffee given to our study subjects was 130 ml that contained 225 mg of caffeine. Our findings are similar to those reported by Gavrieli et al., who noticed that coffee consumption at a level of 250 mg of caffeine has no major effect on glucose metabolism in healthy adults and is therefore not associated with any adverse effects. Data from previous studies indicate that habitual coffee intake is related to lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.,,, The lower GI values observed for sambosa (vegetables) and white bread with red beans may be attributed to their high fibre contents. In addition to this sambosa (vegetables) is fried in oil and this type of cooking may result in slower release and absorption of glucose from these foods. Pulses and legumes are rich sources of fiber and contain galactomannans, which are more viscous than the fiber in wheat and rice. The viscosity of dietary fiber is positively correlated with a reduction in postprandial plasma glucose levels, as high fiber foods can enhance the postprandial endothelial function. In Omani community the red kidney beans are mostly eaten in combination with bread or rice, which may help to reduce the GI of mixed meals.Boiled and fried vermicelli showed almost similar GI, when served with Omani coffee. However, when served with water, the GI of boiled and fried vermicelli differed significantly. Vermicelli, prepared in either boiled or fried form, is a typical Omani dish that is likewise consumed in other Gulf countries and is locally called as “Ballaleet”. Foods, with similar ingredient composition but processed by different methods, can have significantly different rates of digestion and absorption and hence may result in different GI values. There is no standardized definition of how much volume of coffee constitutes a cup, as it can range from 25 to 330 ml. It is thus important when considering how many "cups" of coffee are consumed per day, which may have some protective effects against diabetes. In Oman, the coffee is offered in small cups without handle called “Fingaan”, which are filled less than half of the cup containing about 15-20 ml of coffee. The size of a coffee cup is an important consideration in measuring the consumption of coffee. The quantities of coffee taken with the snack foods are usually small. The method of coffee preparation as well as the addition of other substances to enhance its flavour can largely affect the components of brewed beverage and may present a confounding factor, if these variables are not considered., Our results on the GI of commonly consumed Omani snack foods are similar to those reported from various other parts of the world.,,,,
|Table 4 Comparative glycemic index of commonly consumed snack foods when served water or with Omani coffee (n = 3)|
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| Conclusions|| |
Based on the results of this study fried vermicelli, boiled vermicelli and white bread with red beans can be grouped into medium GI category of foods, whereas doughnuts, cheese sandwich, chicken sandwich and fried egg sandwich are grouped into high GI category. The results of this study report for the first time, the GI of commonly consumed snack foods in Oman and add valuable information not only to the local nutrient database but also to global database on GI values of foods. Further research is required to determine the GI of other mixed meals and Omani dishes to supplement the nutrient database of local Omani foods. It will help to develop strategies for inclusion of these foods in daily meal planning to control the glycemic spikes in normal and diabetic patients for the prevention and management of diabetes.
In the memory of our late graduate student Mrs. Mariam S. Al-Hakmani, who left us at very young age.
We express our sincere thanks to study volunteers for their cooperation and help. Thanks, are also due to Ms. Buthaina S Al-Bulushi for her technical assistance and Dr. Michael Claereboudt for his help in statistical analysis of data. We greatly acknowledge the financial assistance provided by Sultan Qaboos University under an internal research grant (IG/AGR/FOOD/10/01).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]