Users Online: 667

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-13

Nutritional Composition of Bovine Colostrum: Palatability Evaluation of Food Products Prepared Using Bovine Colostrum

Department of Home Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Educational Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission23-Nov-2019
Date of Decision16-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance09-Jan-2020
Date of Web Publication25-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Nivedita Deepak Dande
Research Scholar in Food Science and Nutrition Department of Home Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Educational Campus, Amravati Road-440033, Nagpur
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_77_19

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Bovine colostrum is the initial milk secreted by cows during the first day of calving. The aim of this study was to analyze nutritional composition of bovine colostrum and to replace paneer by incorporating bovine colostrum in sweet rice and tikka masala and to evaluate sensory quality and acceptance of recipes. Materials and Methods: For nutritional analysis of bovine colostrum, first day’s bovine colostrum samples of Sahiwal breed were collected in sterile containers. Various nutritional parameters total solids, fat, solid non fat (SNF), protein, moisture, ash, fat soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins and minerals were studied. Due to its good nutritional composition, steamed bovine colostrum was incorporated in two paneer based recipes, namely sweet rice and tikka masala. Recipes were first standardized & sensory evaluation was conducted by six trained panelists in three trails. Results and Conclusion: Laboratory analysis of bovine samples (per 100 g) showed 15.92% total solids, 2.18 g total fat, 13.74 g solid non fat (SNF), 7.98 g total protein, 84.08% moisture & 0.92 g ash. Fat soluble vitamins & water soluble vitamins such as retinol (0.33 mg), vitamin E (0.29 mg), vitamin D (310.37 mcg), thiamine (0.052 mg), riboflavin (0.384 mg), pyridoxine (0.030 mg), pantothenic acid (0.015 mg) & ascorbic acid (0.016 mg) were estimated in 100 g of bovine colostrum. Niacin, folic acid & biotin were found to be absent in bovine colostrum. The content of calcium, potassium, sulphur, phosphorus & iron was higher in bovine colostrum. Experimental recipes were well accepted for appearance, colour, doneness, texture, flavor & taste with insignificant differences against control recipes at both 5% & 1% (P>0.05). Bovine colostrum was found to be nutritious & surplus bovine colostrum can be incorporated recipes without altering sensory quality.

Keywords: Bovine colostrum, nutritional composition, paneer tikka masala, sensory evaluation, sweet rice

How to cite this article:
Dande ND, Nande PJ. Nutritional Composition of Bovine Colostrum: Palatability Evaluation of Food Products Prepared Using Bovine Colostrum. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2020;10:8-13

How to cite this URL:
Dande ND, Nande PJ. Nutritional Composition of Bovine Colostrum: Palatability Evaluation of Food Products Prepared Using Bovine Colostrum. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Aug 8];10:8-13. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Colostrum also known as beesting, bisnings, or first milk is the mammary secretion that all mammals provide for their new borns during the initial 24–48 hours of post parturition. It is also called as “Elixir of life”.[1] Bovine colostrum provides naturally produced nutrients and antibodies. Bovine colostrum creates the foundation of immunity for long time. Bovine colostrum has light yellow color and subtle taste and smell

It’s very nutritious and contains high levels of antibodies, which are proteins that fight infections and bacteria. Colostrum is rich in various nutrients like proteins, including very important immunoglobulins,[2] macro- and micronutrients.[3],[4] The content of components in colostrum is different than in milk, which responds to the changing nutritional needs accumulate of offspring.[5],[6] The composition of colostrum varies depending on a species, breed, age of an animal, its health and the applied feeding regime.[7],[8]

Bovine colostrum has been used to treat diarrhea, to improve GI health, to boost the immune system. With immune factors and immunoglobulins colostrum also contains antibodies, proline-rich polypeptides (PRP),[9] lactoferrin, glycoproteins, lactalbumins, cytokines (e.g., interleukin, and interferon). There also is a constituent isolated from bovine colostrum that is responsible for uterine and intestinal contraction, and lowering of blood pressure. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in bovine colostrum are known to develop natural immunity to new born. Lactoferrin is involved in certain physiological functions includes absorption of iron, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

Bovine colostrum is boon for lactose intolerance patients because bovine colostrum has less lactose, it contains 10-15% lactose. Therefore, high quality complete first milking colostrum collected within 6 hours after birth can be used as a dietary supplement by more people without potentially having them suffer the discomforts associated with lactose intolerance.[10]

Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of supplementation of bovine colostrums in improving body composition, aspects of athletic performance, diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal disturbances and aspects of the acute phase response that occurs secondary to surgery. Specific hyperimmune bovine colostrums, produced to have high neutralizing titer activity against H. pylori, measles, rotavirus, and shigella species appear to have clinical utility in conditions associated with these infectious organisms.[11]

Paneer is an important indigenous dairy product prepared by the heat and acid coagulation of milk.[12] According to Food Safety & Standard Authority of India, (FSSCI), paneer means the product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid, or citric acid. According to Kanawjia and Singh,[15] paneer is made up of protein and fat, insoluble salts and colloidal materials, as well as part of the moisture of the original milk, which contains lactose, whey proteins, soluble salts, vitamins, and other milk components. In India, paneer is used in many culinary dishes and snacks.[13] The steamed colostrum cake is an indigenous milk product prepared from colostral milk. It is prepared since many years by adopting local procedure by steam cooking of the colostral milk. Thus, a smooth junket is formed which is then cut into pieces of desirable size and served as delicacy, either in hot or cold state.[14]

In recent years, bovine colostrum has gained popularity as a human food because it is an excellent source of bioactive proteins, which have been claimed to inhibit viral and bacterial pathogens, improve gastrointestinal health and enhance body condition.[15] Bovine colostrum can be consumed in any form either natural or preserved in the form of steamed cake, pills, tablets, powder, or liquid. Being a very good source of protein, energy, micronutrients as well as immunoglobulins, natural bovine colostrum can be incorporated in different recipes.

Since, steamed colostrum shows similar appearance of paneer, for the present research, an attempt was made to replace paneer from popular Indian recipes namely sweet rice and tikka masala with steamed colostrum. Also, paneer is a concentrated source of milk and is comparatively high in protein and fat. Its replacement with steamed colostrum can make the recipes more nutritious as they are low in calories.

The aim of the present study was to examine nutritional quality and to develop popular Indian recipes namely sweet rice and tikka masala by incorporating steamed cake of bovine colostrum and to evaluate acceptance criteria of prepared products.

   Materials and Methods Top

This study was divided in two phases.

Phase 1: Nutritional analysis of bovine colostrum

Collection of raw colostrum sample. For nutritional analysis, colostrum sample was collected from farm of dairy cows, mainly Sahiwal breed (selected purposively). Available cow was chosen and sample was collected within 24 hours of postpartum. Cow was milked manually after suckling by the calf and sample was collected under hygienic condition. Colostrum was mixed thoroughly and sample was divided in 50 ml containers and immediately placed in ice (i.e. insulated portable ice box and transported laboratory). Total 650 ml sample was given for analysis. Samples were frozen and stored at −20°C until used.

Laboratory analysis of raw colostrum. The laboratory analysis was done for the measurement of total solids, total fat and solid non-fat (SNF), moisture, protein, lactose, fat-soluble vitamins (i.e. retinol, tocopherol, vitamin D), water-soluble vitamins (i.e. thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, copper, chloride, and sulphur). The analysis was conducted at ANACONLABS (Anacon Laboratory Pvt. Ltd, Nagpur, India- ISO 9001:2008 certified organization, recognized by Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), New Delhi, India, accredited by National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) for complying with International Standard IS-17025 in various categories including the categories of ‘Water, Food, Coal/coke, Ores’ and accredited by Quality Council of India (QCI) for conducting environmental studies, Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) & Food safety (FSSAI, Govt. of India) using standard analytical procedures.

Phase 2: Preparation, standardization and sensory evaluation of recipes

Control (i.e. standardized) and experimental recipes of sweet rice and tikka masala are shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Experimental recipes were prepared using fresh bovine colostrum and compared with control recipes made out of paneer for sensory attributes. Standard methods of preparation of recipes were followed. The process of standardization of paneer and colostrum recipes was done in a stepwise manner, starting from standardization of control recipes, followed by experimental recipes till standardized set recipes were developed with similar appearance, color, doneness, texture, flavor, and taste.
Table 1 Composition of ingredients for sweet rice

Click here to view
Table 2 Composition of ingredients for tikka masala

Click here to view

Preparation of paneer. Following flow chart presents steps for making paneer [Figure 1].
Figure 1 Preparation of Paneer: Following flow chart presents steps for making paneer.

Click here to view

For preparation of recipes, perishable ingredients were purchased fresh whereas non-perishable ingredients were purchased in bulk from local market of Nagpur city, Maharashtra State, India.

Sensory evaluation of control and experimental sweet rice and tikka masala was done in three palatability trials by six panelists for appearance, color, flavor, mouth feel, taste, and acceptability. Scoring was done using four-point scale for maximum score of 10 to a minimum score of 4 for all sensory attributes (10-very good, 8-good, 6-fair, and 4-poor).[16] [Table 3] and [Table 4] show score card and key used for conducting sensory testing of control and experimental recipes, respectively.
Table 3 Score card

Click here to view
Table 4 Key

Click here to view

Statistical analysis

Means were derived. Bovine colostrum recipes were compared with paneer recipes for their sensory attributes using student’s ‘t’ test. The level of significance was tested at both 1% and 5% levels.

   Results and Discussion Top

Nutritional composition of bovine colostrum

Composition of fresh bovine colostrum varies with a number of factors including individuality, age, breed, time of postpartum, feed, length of dry period of cow. Individual nutrients are affected differentially by these factors.[17]

The nutrition composition analysis of fresh bovine colostrum of the first day of parturition from samples collected from Sahiwal cows is presented in [Table 5].
Table 5 Nutritional composition of bovine colostrum

Click here to view

At the first day of post partum, the total solids, total fat, solid non-fat, moisture, total protein, ash lactose were found to be 15.92 g, 2.18 g, 13.74 g, 84.08 g, 7.98 g, 0.92 g per 100 g, respectively. Fat content in colostrum is less likely to be affected by feeding different levels of dietary fat during gestation.[18] In a study by Tsioulpas et al. (2007)[19] and Morrill et al. (2012)[20] lactose content was very low on day one and increased thereafter up to 60 day, at which time it reached normal levels. In the present study, lactose content was found to be 0.92 g/100 g.

Elfstrand et al.[21] in their study found that the protein content of bovine colostrum decreased with time, while the concentration of lactose increased. Similar previous results were reported by researchers Foley and Otterby[22]. Rice and Rogers[23] reported 23% total solids, 14% total protein, 4.8% casein, 6.7% fat, and 2.7% lactose in 1st milking of cows. Heinrichs and Jones[24] reported the % fat, protein, lactose, and ash content in 55 colostrum samples from Pennsylvania farms as 6.70, 14.92, 2.49, and 0.05, respectively. They have estimated total solids as 27.64% [Table 6].
Table 6 Vitamin content of bovine colostrum

Click here to view

As per the statement of Zanker et al. (2000),[25] Fat-soluble vitamins are an important component in colostrum.[31] Although tocopherols pass through placental membranes and are stored by the fetus, neonates are still born with low tocopherol levels and rely on colostrum for this nutrient. For the present research, the concentrations of tocopherol and retinol were estimated as 0.29 mg/100 g and 0.33 mg/100 g, respectively. In contrast, Koheo et al.[17] reported less concentration. This may be due to the dependence on maternal reserve status, feed, and season.

Fox and Kleinsmith (2003)[26] studied on bovine colostrum and stated that bovine colostrum contained three times more vitamin D than milk. In this study, vitamin D was found to be high (310.37 mcg/100 g). Bovine colostrum and its products may be used to treat rickets in children and Vitamin D deficiency in adults.

The content of retinol and tocopherol in 55 colostrum samples from Pennsylvania farms was reported as 4.90 and 2.92 µg/g by Heinrichs and Jones[24] and they also reported thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and pyridoxine as 0.90, 4.55, 0.34, and 0.21 µg/mL, respectively. Similar to the results of present study, the folic acid was not found in the samples.

Water-soluble vitamins have not been extensively revealed in bovine colostrum. The values of water-soluble vitamin analyzed for this current study were 0.052, 0.384, 0.030, 0.015, and 0.0169 mg/100 g for thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, and ascorbic acid, respectively. However, niacin, folic acid, and biotin were not found in bovine colostrum. Among water-soluble vitamins, it was found that riboflavin was more than other water-soluble vitamins.

It is seen from the results in [Table 7] that bovine colostrum is the greatest source of many minerals. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur were high in bovine colostrum (1518.6, 1586, 1297.5, and 2765.4 mg/kg, respectively). Hence, can be supplemented for achieving the sufficiency of these vital minerals. Similar to the results of the present study, the values of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in colostrum samples from Pennsylvania farms as reported by Heinrichs and Jones[24] were also found to be high (4716.10, 4452.10, 2845.89, and 2595.67 mg/kg, respectively).
Table 7 Mineral content of bovine colostrum

Click here to view

The content of sodium, magnesium, chloride, and zinc in the colostrum samples in present research was observed in good amount in bovine colostrum which was analyzed as 516.7, 219.7, 130, and 151.0 mg/kg respectively. Heinrichs and Jones[24] estimated the magnesium and sodium content in colostrum samples as 7333.24 and 1058.93 mg/kg, respectively. For the present study, copper and zinc were found to be less in comparison to other minerals (2.62 and 0.49 mg/kg, respectively). Heinrichs and Jones[24] reported quite higher zinc content (38.10 mg/kg) whereas copper content was reported as 0.34 mg/kg.

For the present research, bovine colostrum was found to be good in iron content (34.66 mg/kg) whereas iodine was absent in bovine colostrum. Heinrichs and Jones[24] reported iron content as 5.33 mg/kg.

Sensory evaluation of food products using paneer and bovine colostrum

Control sweet rice and tikka masala were prepared using paneer. Experimental sweet rice and tikka masala were prepared using steamed bovine colostrum cake. Both control sweet rice and tikka masala were compared with experimental sweet rice and tikka masala for their sensory attributes and results are presented in [Table 8] and [Table 9], respectively.
Table 8 Mean palatability scores for control and experimental sweet rice

Click here to view
Table 9 Mean palatability scores for control and experimental tikka masala

Click here to view

There were no significant differences seen between control and experimental sweet rice for appearance, color, doneness, texture, flavor, taste, acceptability (t = 1.09, 0.95, 1.08, 1.93, 1.09, 1.43, and 1.43, respectively).

Tikka masala is a flavor full of very popular Punjabi dish made from cubes of paneer marinated in curd and spices and then grilled in a tandoor. It is usually served dry with spicy onions and green peppers, although it can be cooked in gravy as well (Goyal et al., 2010).[27] It was seen that there occurred insignificant difference between control and experimental tikka masala for appearance, color, doneness, texture, flavor, taste, acceptability (t = 1.4, 0.4, 1.3, 0.31, 0, 0.28, and 0.35, respectively). Mean scores obtained for experimental tikka masala were almost similar to control tikka masala.

   Conclusion Top

It is concluded that bovine colostrum was found to be nutritious. Popular Indian paneer-based recipes like sweet rice and tikka masala can be successfully prepared using steamed bovine colostrum without affecting their sensory quality. Since most of the people are not aware about nutritional fact of bovine colostrum and they tend to waste a highly nutritious food because of less knowledge, fallacies, and taboos. Agreeing the fact that calf has the birth right to have it, surplus bovine colostrum can be utilized for human consumption by incorporating in different recipes.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Buttar HS, Bagwe SM, Bhullar SK, Kaur G. Health benefits of bovine colostrum in children and adult. Dairy in human health and diseases across the life span. 2017;3-20. Available from: Retrieved on 23/4/2019. IST: 11.56 am.  Back to cited text no. 1
Zwierzchowski G, Micinski J, Pogorzelska J, Siwicki A, Wojcik R, Kobzhassarov T, Bermagambetova N, Shaikamal G, Fijałkowska M. Influence of a diet containing ß-carotene and omega-3 fatty acids on the biochemical and non-specific humoral immunity indicators and on the results of experimental calf rearing. J Elementol 2016;21:283-302. Available at:  Back to cited text no. 2
Scammell A. Production and uses of colostrum. Aust J Dairy Technol 2001;56:74-82. Available at: Retrieved on 25/3/2019. IST: 9.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 3
El-Fattah A, Rabo F, El-Dieb S, El-Kashef H. Changes in composition of colostrum of egyptian buffaloes and holstein cows. BMC Vet Res 2012;8:1-7. Available at: 8-19. Retrieved on 29/4/2019. IST: 9.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ontsouka Q, Bruckmaier R, Blum J. Fractionized milk composition during removal of colostrum and mature milk. J Dairy Sci 2003;86:2005-11. Available at: Retrieved on 11/05/2019. IST: 6.55 pm.  Back to cited text no. 5
Micinski J, Jastrzebski M, Klupczynski J. Yield and composition of milk from Polish Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows in particular months of the first lactations as dependent on milk protein polymorphism. Arch. Tierz Dummerstorf 2008;51:216-23. Available at:,98687,0,2.html.  Back to cited text no. 6
Micinski J, Klupczynski J. Correlations between variants of milk proteins, and milk yield and chemical composition in Black-and-White and Jersey cows. Pol. J Food Nutr Sci 2006;15:137-43. Citation from: Retrieved on 15/11/2019. IST: 10.04 pm.  Back to cited text no. 7
Minkiewicz P, Micinski J, Darewicz M, Bucholska J. Biological and Chemical Databases for Research into the Composition of Animal Source Foods, Food Reviews International, 2013;29:321-51. Citation from: Retrieved on 15/11/2019. IST: 12.26 pm.  Back to cited text no. 8
Bar E, Tiris I, Sarbu D, Iridon C, Ochea I, Bratu I. Full characterization of bovine colostrum, raw material for dietary supplements. His beneficial effect on the human immune System. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: Food Technology vol. XIV 2010;14:33-40. Available at: Retrieved on 1/05/2019. IST: 05:30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 9
Gopal K, Gill S. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum. British Journal of Nutrition 2000;84:S69-S74. Available at: Retrieved on 5/8/2011. IST: 10.23 am.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kelly GS. Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses. Alternative Medicine Review. 2003;8:378-94. Citation from: Retrieved on 4/5/2019. IST 10:39 pm.  Back to cited text no. 11
Shrivastava S, Goyal GK. Preparation of paneer: A review. Indian J Dairy Sci 2007;60:377-88. Available at: Retrieved on 15/11/2019. IST: 10.46 pm.  Back to cited text no. 12
Dikshit D, Kumari S, Singh P. Sensory and nutritional acceptability of low fat paneer prepared by optimization of milk by skim milk powder. Int J Multidiscip Res Dev 2015;2:9-11. Available at: Retrieved on 5/11/2019. IST: 10.02 pm.  Back to cited text no. 13
Rahate R. Manufacture of artificial colostrum cake enriched with mango pulp cv.alphanso. Krishikosh Institutional Repository 2018. Available at: Retrieved on 29/12/2019. IST: 2.27 pm.  Back to cited text no. 14
Houser BA, Donaldson SC, Kehoe SI, Heinrichs AJ, Jayarao BM. A survey of bacteriological quality and the occurrence of Salmonella in raw bovine colostrum. Foodborne pathog dis 2008;5:853-8. Retrieved on Retrieved on 26/9/2019. IST 10:51 pm.  Back to cited text no. 15
Manay S, Shadaksharaswamy M. Foods, Facts & Principles. Second Edition, New Age International Publishers, 2005.  Back to cited text no. 16
Kehoe S, Jayarao B, Heinrichs A. A survey of bovine colostrum composition and colostrum management practices on Pennsylvania dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci 2007;90:4108-16. Available at: Retrieved on 1/05/2019. IST: 10.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 17
Dietz R, Hall J, Whittier D, Elvinger F, Eversole D. Effects of feeding supplemental fat to beef cows on cold tolerance in newborn calves. J Anim Sci 2003;81:885-94. Available at: Retrieved on 1/5/2019. IST: 5.45 pm.  Back to cited text no. 18
Tsioulpas A, Grandison AS, Lewis M. Changes in physical properties of bovine milk from the colostrum period to early Lactation. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:5012-17. Available at: Retrieved on 1/05/2019. IST: 10.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 19
Morrill K, Conrad E, Lago A, Campbell J, Quigley J, Tyler H. Nationwide evaluation of quality and composition of colostrum on dairy farms in the United States. J Dairy Sci 2012;95:3997-4005. Available at: Retrieved on 30/04/2019. IST: 4:00 pm.  Back to cited text no. 20
Elfstrand L, Lindmark-Mansson H, Paulsson M, Nyberg L, Akesson B. Immunoglobulins, growth factors and growth hormone in bovinecolostrum and the effects of processing. Int Dairy J 2002;12:879-87. Available at: Retrieved on 29/4/2019. IST: 9.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 21
Foley A, Otterby E. Availability, storage, treatment, composition and feeding value of surplus colostrum: A review. J. Dairy Sci 1978;61:1033-60. Available at: Retrieved on 01/05/2019. IST: 5.30 pm.  Back to cited text no. 22
Rice D, Rogers D. Colostrum quality and absorption in baby calves. Feeding and Nutrition, 1990.  Back to cited text no. 23
Heinrichs J, Jones C. Composition and hygiene of colostrum on modern Pennsylvania dairy farm. College of Agriculture Sciences, Cooperative Extension, PennState, Dairy & Animal Science 2011;1-8. Available at: Retrieved on 27/4/2019. IST: 10.12 pm.  Back to cited text no. 24
Zanker I, Harrold H, Blum J. Beta-carotene, retinol and alpha-tocopherol status in calves fed the first colostrum at 0–2, 6-7, 12-13 or 24-25 hours after birth. Int J for Vitam Nutr Res 2000;70:305-10. Available at: Retrieved on 15/11/2019. IST: 5.05 pm.  Back to cited text no. 25
Fox A, Kleinsmith A. Scientific and medical research related to bovine colostrum. Its relationship and use in the treatment of disease in humans. 2011; Citation from: Retrieved on 26/9/2019. IST: 10.44 am.  Back to cited text no. 26
Goyal G, Ahuja K, Goyal S. Manufacture of paneer tikka. Indian Dairyman 2010;62:56-60. Available at: Retrieved on 15/11/2019. IST: 3.35 pm.  Back to cited text no. 27


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Results and D...
    Materials and Me...
    Results and D...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded199    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal