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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 87-96

Effect of Omega-3 Alone and in Combination With Dexamethasone or Methotrexate in Treatment of Experimentally Induced Arthritis in Rats

1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt
3 Histology department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
MD, PhD Ahmed A Elberry
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_20_19

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Aims: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its complementary effect in combination with the half-tested doses of the most common drugs used to treat RA as cortisone and methotrexate. Methods: Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of three doses of 0.4 mL complete Freund’s adjuvant-antigen emulsion at three different limbs. Animals were divided into control group, arthritis group, omega-treated group (1 g\kg\d), dexamethasone-treated group (1 mg\kg\d), methotrexate-treated group (1 mg\kg\d), omega (1 g\kg\d) plus dexamethasone (0.5 mg\kg\d)-treated group, and omega (1 g\kg\d) plus methotrexate (0.5 mg\kg\d)-treated group. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1B, myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde were assessed. A histopathological study of rat’s knee joints and an immunohistochemical study for expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in joint tissue were performed. Results: The results showed that omega treatment significantly corrected paw diameter and all biochemical markers, but the combination treatment of omega plus dexamethasone or methotrexate in lower doses showed more significant correction with the restoration of these parameters back to normal level except for tumor necrosis factor alpha. Also, there was an amelioration of pathological changes of knee joints with the restoration of the smooth articular surface besides the reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 expression that was showed by the immunohistochemical study. Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that omega-3 may have an ameliorative effect against experimentally induced arthritis and can improve the therapeutic effect of standard medications used in the treatment of RA.

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