Users Online: 397

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 146-151

Tephrosia purpureaLinn leaves attenuate pain and inflammation in experimental animals

1 Department of Pharmacology, SNJB'S SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Neminagar, Chandwad, Nashik; Department of Pharmacology, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, SNJB'S SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Neminagar, Chandwad, Nashik, India

Date of Submission18-Dec-2010
Date of Acceptance05-Feb-2011
Date of Web Publication23-Aug-2011

Correspondence Address:
Vishal Gulecha
Department of Pharmacology, SNJB'S SSDJ College of Pharmacy Neminagar, Chandwad, Nashik
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.84205

Rights and Permissions

Aim : Present study evaluates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of Tephrosia purpurea using various experimental models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of T. purpurea carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. The effects of the administration of reference standard (Ibuprofen and hydrocortisone) were also evaluated. Results: Five different fractions (TPI, TPII, TPIII, TPIV, and TPV) of T. purpurea at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o. were tested. The fraction TPI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and TPIII (40 mg/kg, p.o.) were found to be more effective in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation and acetic acid-induced writhing; however, TPI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and TPIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusions: Out of five different fractions of T. purpurea tested, TPI and TPIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

Keywords: Acetic acid, carrageenan, granuloma formation, Tephrosia purpurea,tail flick

How to cite this article:
Gulecha V, Sivakumar T, Upaganlawar A, Khandare R, Upasani C. Tephrosia purpureaLinn leaves attenuate pain and inflammation in experimental animals. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:146-51

How to cite this URL:
Gulecha V, Sivakumar T, Upaganlawar A, Khandare R, Upasani C. Tephrosia purpureaLinn leaves attenuate pain and inflammation in experimental animals. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 Dec 5];1:146-51. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Chronic inflammatory diseases remain one of the world's major health problems. [1],[2] Inflammation is the response of living tissues to injury. It involves a complex array of enzyme activation, mediator release, extravasations of fluid, cell migration, tissue breakdown and repair. [3],[4] A large number of herbal drugs are presumed to have excellent medicinal value and are used for treating different types of inflammatory, arthritic, and pain conditions with considerable success. Scientific studies are, therefore, required to judge their efficacy and some of the medicinal properties popularly claimed, as well as other limitations to widen the scope of these drugs.

Tephrosia purpurea (TP) L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as "Sharapunkha" in Sanskrit, is a copiously branched, suberect, herbaceous perennial plant, which occurs through out the Indian. [5] Whole plant has been used to cure tumors, ulcers, leprosy, allergic, and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis. [6] The aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea seeds has shown significant in vivo hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits [7] and the ethanolic extracts possess potential antibacterial activity. The flavanoids isolated from the plant has been reported to have antimicrobial activity. [8] It has also been reported to acquire hepatoprotective, mast cell stabilizing and erythrocyte membrane integrity enhancing effect in various animal models. [9],[10] Phytochemical investigations on T. purpurea have revealed the presence of various phytoactive constituents such as glycosides, rotenoids, isoflavones, flavanones, chalcones, flavanols, flavones and sterols. [11]

No, scientific reports is observed till date regarding the effects of T. purpurea fractions on analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. So, an attempt was made to screen the different fraction of TP for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using different models in rats and mice.

   Materials and Methods Top

Plant material

The leaves of T. purpurea were collected from local region of Nashik, India in the month of July 2008. The plant material was identified and authenticated by Prof. P.G. Diwakar, Botanical survey of India, Pune and the Voucher No. BSI/WC/Tech/08/340.

Preparation of T. purpurea fractions

The extraction was carried out using pet ether initially, then it was allowed to evaporate slowly in shallow dish and resinous mass was discarded and yield obtained was 14.8 g (2.96%). The remaining material was further fractionated into acetone soluble and acetone insoluble portions. These two portions were dissolved in benzene and subjected to column chromatographic separation as detailed below:

Chromatographic separation of acetone soluble and insoluble part

For column chromatography Silica gel c was first activated at 150 °C for 3 h in an oven. After cooling, slurry was prepared in benzene, it was poured in glass column and set aside for 2 h. The residue of pet ether extract was dissolved in minimum volume of benzene, and it was mixed thoroughly with silica gel. It was air dried and charged into the column. The elution was carried out first with benzene (TPI) and successively eluted with ethyl acetate (TPII). The solvents were changed when portion of eluent showed absence of residue. The separation of acetone insoluble part was carried out as described above with benzene (TPIII) followed by ethyl acetate.

Preparation of fractions of alcoholic extract

The dried alcoholic extract was separated into water soluble and water insoluble portion (TPIV) using minimum quantity of distilled water. Only about 10% extract was soluble in water, which was vigorously shaken repeatedly with small volumes of ethyl acetate (TPV) till the ethyl acetate layer becomes colorless. On the preliminary phytochemical screening, [12] theses fractions gave positive tests for, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, and saponins.

Experimental animals

Albino rats of Wistar strain (150--200 g) and Swiss albino mice (25--30 g) of either sex were used in the entire study and were procured from Yash farm, Pvt.Ltd., Pune. They were housed in standard polypropylene cages and kept under controlled room temperature (24 ± 2 °C; relative humidity 60%--70%) in a 12 h light-dark cycle. The animals were fed with standard laboratory diet and water ad libitum. Food was withdrawn 12 h before and during the experimental hours. The experimental protocol was approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee.

Studies on anti-inflammatory activity

Rat paw edema induced by Carrageenan

The anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions (TPI, TPII, TPIII, TPIV, and TPV) was assessed using carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The fractions were suspended in 0.5% (w/v) gum acacia and were administered in doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o., respectively, 1 h prior to carrageenan injection (0.1 ml of 1% solution). The paw volume was measured at an interval of 0, 1, 2, and 3 h using Plethysmometer (UGO Basil, Italy, Model no. 7130). [13]

Granuloma formation induced by cotton pellet in rats

Male rats of 125--150 g weight were divided into seven groups containing five animals in each group. The cotton pellet weighing 50 ± 1 mg was sterilized in an autoclave (Lab Hosp., Mumbai, India) handled with sterile instrument. The pellet was inserted in each animal on the back. Control group received vehicle. Group II, III, IV, and V were treated with TPI (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) and TPIII (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) whereas group VI and VII were treated with reference standard, i.e.., hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and ibuprofen (40 mg/kg, p.o.,) for consecutive 6 days. [14],[15] The animals were sacrificed on seventh day and cotton pellet along with granuloma mass were collected, it was weighted and dried at 60 °C. Results of the assay were calculated as %inhibition of dry weight of granuloma formation by using the formula: 100(A -- B)/A, where A = gain in dry weight of control pellet (mg), B = gain in dry weight of drug treated (mg).

Studies on analgesic activity

Tail flick latency period in rats

Male rats of 125--150 g weight were divided into six groups containing five animals in each group. A tail flick response was evoked by placing each rat tail over the wire heated electrically, using Analgesiometer (Space Scientific, Nashik, India). The intensity of heat was adjusted so that baseline tail flick latency averaged 3--4 s in all animals. Cut-off time was 15 s in order to avoid injury to tail. The fractions TPI, TPIII, and reference standard ibuprofen were administered orally in their respective doses 1 h prior to the test. [16]

Acetic acid-induced writhing in mice

The writhing syndrome was elicited by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.1 ml of 0.6% solution) and numbers of writhes displayed from 5 to 20 min were recorded. [17] The fractions TPI, TPIII, and reference standard ibuprofen were administered orally in their respective doses 30 min prior to the test.

   Statistical Analysis Top

Results of all the above estimations have been indicated in terms of mean ± SEM. Difference between the groups was statistically determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Dunnett's test multiple comparisons test using GraphPad InStat version 5.00, GraphPad Software, CA, USA. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

   Results Top

Effect of T. purpurea fractions on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan

Different fractions (TPI, TPII, TPIII, TPIV, and TPV) of T. purpurea were tested against carrageenan induced rat paw edema [Table 1]. The fractions TPI and TPIII of T. purpurea significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) reduced the rat paw edema induced by carrageenan. TPI and TPIII (40 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced inflammation by 63.75% and 50%, respectively. However, other fractions (TPII, TPIV, TPV) showed mild inhibition to the paw edema induced by carrageenan during the three time points from 1 to 3 h.
Table 1: Effect of T. purpurea fractions on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan

Click here to view

Effect of T. purpurea fractions on cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats

The effect of T. purpurea fractions on cotton pellet granuloma formation is shown in [Table 2]. Treatment with TPI and TPIII (40 mg/kg, p.o.) to rats showed a significant (P < 0.01) inhibition in the weight of cotton pellet in rats and the percentage inhibition was found to be 24.84 and 21.25, respectively. Treatment with the reference standard, i.e., hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and ibuprofen (40 mg/kg, p.o.) also showed significant inhibition in cotton pellets granuloma formation as compared to control group.
Table 2: Effect of T. purpurea fractions in granuloma formation induced by cotton pellet in rats

Click here to view

Effect of T. purpurea fractions on tail flick latency period

Treatment of TPI and TPIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited nociception in rats by 17.60% and 22.02%, respectively. Whereas, TP I and TPIII (40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited pain perception by 16.58% and 12.53%, respectively. Ibuprofen treatment (40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited pain perception by 27.92%.[Table 3]
Table 3: Effect of T. purpurea fractions in tail flick latency period

Click here to view

Effect of T. purpurea fractions in acetic acid induced writhing in mice

[Figure 1] shows the effect of different fractions of T. purpurea against acid induced writhing in mice. It was observed that mice treated with TPI 20 (39.86%) and TPIII 20 (34.88%) shows significant (P < 0.01) protection compared to control group, however TPI 40 (49.16%) and TPIII 40 (48.50%) was found to be more significant (P < 0.01) in protecting acetic acid induced writhing compared to control group. Ibuprofen showed 56.14% protection against acetic acid induced writhing in mice.
Figure 1: Effect of T. purpurea fractions in acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and expressed as Mean ± SEM (N = 5) followed by Dunnett's test and differences between means were regarded signifi cant at * (P < 0.05), ** (P < 0.01)

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

T. purpurea is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been used for the treatment of various kinds of inflammatory diseases including tumors, ulcers, leprosy, rheumatism, and bronchitis. [18] Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids, steroids and tannins have been reported [19] hence the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects produced by these fractions may be attributed individually or collectively to the flavonoids and steroids. However, its pharmacological actions and mechanisms have not been precisely documented in spite of its increasing usage recently. Present work reported the potential effects of the T. purpurea fractions, as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent using both in vivo and in vitro models.

Carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats reflect the edematous stages during acute and chronic inflammation. [20],[21] In the present study, five different fractions of T. purpurea were tested. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema has been a popular inflammatory model to investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory effect of compounds [22] Serotonin, histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandin have been identified as a mediators for carrageenan induced rat paw edema. [23]

Among these fractions only TPI and TPIII were found to posses a prominent anti-inflammatory activity, where as other fractions were gentle inhibition to the paw edema induced by carrageenan during the three time points from 1 to 3 h. In cotton pellet granuloma model, the fraction TPI and TPIII showed significant inhibition. The effectiveness of these fractions at 1 and 3 h in carrageenan induced paw edema indicates their antagonist effect at Serotonin, histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandin. Because the release of serotonin and histamine occurs 1 h after carrageenan whereas bradykinin and prostaglandin are released 2 and 3 h, respectively, after carrageenan injection. [24] The cotton pellet granuloma is a model of chronic inflammation, and dry weight has been shown to correlate with the amount of granulomatous tissue formed. [25] In the present study animals treated with TPI and TP III showed significant inhibition of granuloma formation. Both hydrocortisone and ibuprofen were found to be more effective in preventing granuloma formation compared to TPI and TPIII respectively.

Since inflammation is also associated with pain, majority of anti-inflammatory drug posses analgesic activity. The peripheral analgesic effect of drugs may be mediated through inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases and/or lipoxygenases (and other inflammatory mediators), while the central analgesic action may be mediated through inhibition of central pain receptors. This hypothesis is in line with previous reports e who have postulated that acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick methods are useful techniques for evaluation of peripherally and centrally acting analgesic drugs, respectively. Present study also showed the effects of T. purpurea fractions on acetic acid-induce writhing and tail flick latency test. Treatment of TPI and TPIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited nociception. Whereas TP I and TPIII (40 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited pain perception respectively in tail flick latency test and acetic acid-induce writhing. These results indicated TPI and TPIII fractions might produce the analgesic effect peripherally as well as centrally.

Flavonoids isolated from some medicinal plants have been proven to posses antinociceptive and/ or anti-inflammatory effects. [28] It has been shown by Meli et al.,[29] Dicarlo et al.[30] that flavonoids also inhibit gastric motility in a dose - dependent, manner. It is therefore possible that the inhibitory effects on anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects observed in these fractions may be attributed in part to its flavonoid content. Flavonoids also inhibit the phosphodiesterases involved in cell activation. [29] Much of this effect is upon the biosynthesis of protein cytokines that mediates adhesion of circulating leukocytes to sites of injury. Flavonoids inhibit biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which are involved in various immunologic responses and are the end products of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase parthways. [31] Protein Kinases are another class of regulatory enzymes affected by flavonoids. Inhibition of these enzymes provides the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit inflammatory processes. [32],[33]

   Conclusions Top

From the present study, it is concluded that T. purpurea fractions are capable of inhibiting inflammatory reactions as well as pain. The results provided experimental evidence for its traditional use in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

   References Top

1.Gulecha VS, Sivakumar T, Mahajan MS, Upasani CD. Antiinflammatory Activity of Tephrosia purpurea leaves. Pharmacologyonline 2010;1:227-32.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Li RW, Myers SP, Leach DN, Lin GD, Leach G. A cross-cultural study: Anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;85:25-32.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Iwueke AV, Nwodo OF, Okoli CO. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic ctivities Of Vitex Doniana leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5:1929-35.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Pillai KK. Anti-inflammatory activity of Trichodesma indicum root extract in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:410-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1956.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. 2 nd ed. Allahabad, India: Lalit Mohan Basu; 1956.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Rahman H, Kashifudduja M, Syed M, Saleemuddin M. Hypoglycemicactivity of Tephrosia purpurea seeds. Indian J Med Res 1985;81:418.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Gokhale AB, Saraf MN. Tephrosia purpurea: A review of contemporary literature and medicinal properties. Indian Drugs 2000;37:553-60.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Murthy MS, Srinivasan M. Hepatoprotective effect of Tephrosia purpurea in experimental animals. Indian J Pharmacol 1993;25:34-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Gokhale AB, Dikshit VJ, Damle AS, Kulkarni KR, Saraf MN. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. On mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:837-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Pelter A, Ward RS, Rao EV, Raju NR. 8-Substituted flavonoids and 3-substituted 7-oxygenated chalcones from Tephrosia purpurea. J Chem Soc 1981;1:2491.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Trease GE, Evans MC. Text book of Pharmacognosy. 15 th ed. London: Balliere Tindall; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenan induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol 1962;111:544-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Winder CV, Wax J, Scothi T, Scherrer RA, Short FW. Antiinflammatory, Antipyretic and Antiniciceptive properties of N-(2-3 xylyl) anthranilic acid. J Pharmacol exp Ther 1962;138:405-13.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Swingle KF, Shideman FE. Phase of the inflammatory response to subcutaneous implantation of a cotton pellet and their modification by certain anti-inflammatory agents. J Pharmacol exp Ther 1972;183:226-34.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Davies OL, Raventos J, Walpole AL. Method for evaluation of analgesic activity using rats. Br J Pharmacol 1946;1:255-64.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Proc Soc Exp Biol 1959;18:412-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Zhang M. Comparative study on efficacy of two different techniques Zu Shima agents. J Lanzhou Medical College 2004;30:69-70.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Bhujbal SS. Chitlange SS, Suralkar AA, Shinde DB,. Patil MJ. Anti- inflammatory activity of an isolated flavonoids fraction from Celosia argentea Linn. J Med Plants Res 2008;2:52-4.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Matsuda R, Tanihata S. Suppressive effect of sialic acid on the prostaglandin E2-mediated oedema in carrageenin-induced inflammation of rat hind paws. Nippon Yakurigaku Zassshi 1992;99:363-72.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Vogel HG, Vogel WH. Drug Discovery and Evaluation. Pharmacological Assays. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 766-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.El-Shenawy SM, Abdel-Salam OM, Baiuomy AR, El-Batran S, Arbid MS. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Melatonin in rat. Pharmacol Res 2002;46:235-43.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Mohan M, Gulecha VS, Aurangabadkar VM, Balaraman R, Austin A, Thirungnanasampathan S. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity of a Polyherbal Formulation (PHF-AROGH). OPEM 2009;3:232-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Di Rosa M, Willoughby DA. Screens of anti-inflammatory drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol 1971;23:297-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Thangam C, Dhananjayan R. Antiinflammatory potential of the seeds of Carum copticum Linn. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:388-90.  Back to cited text no. 25
  Medknow Journal  
26.Eddy ND, Leimback D. Synthetic analgesics. II. Dithyienylbutenyl-amines and dithyienylbutylamines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1953;3:544-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Williamson EM, Okpako DT, Evans FJ. Pharmacological Methods in Phytotherapy Research. Selection, Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Materials. vol 1. Chichester: John Wiley; 1996. p. 184-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Duke JA. Handbook of Biological Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1992. p.15-20.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Meli R, Autore G, Dicarlo G, Capasso F. Inhibitory Actions of Quercetin on Intestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Res 1990;4:201-2.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Dicarlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F, Autore G. Effect of Quercetin on Gastrointestinal Transit in Mice. Phytotherapy Res 1994;8:42-5.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Moroney MA, Alcaraz MJ, Forder RA, Carey F, Hoult JR. Selectivity of neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibition by anti- inflammatory flavonoid glycoside and related aglycone flavonoids. J Pharm Phamocol 1988;40:787-92.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Guthrie N. Biological Properties of Citrus Flavonoids Pertaining to Cancer and Inflammation. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:135-53.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Rajnarayana K, Reddy MS, Chaluvadi MR, Krishna DR. Biflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian J Pharmacol 2001;33:2-16.  Back to cited text no. 33


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 A comprehensive review on ethnomedicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.
A. S. Rao,S. S. Yadav,Priya Singh,Abhishek Nandal,Neetu Singh,S. A. Ganaie,Neelam Yadav,Rajesh Kumar,M. S. Bhandoria,Pradeep Bansal
Phytotherapy Research. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A novel benzofuran, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide, from Tephrosia purpurea suppressed histamine H1 receptor gene expression through a protein kinase C-d-dependent signaling pathway
Manik Chandra Shill,Hiroyuki Mizuguchi,Sanmoy Karmakar,Takuya Kadota,Pulok K. Mukherjee,Yoshiaki Kitamura,Yoshiki Kashiwada,Hisao Nemoto,Noriaki Takeda,Hiroyuki Fukui
International Immunopharmacology. 2016; 30: 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea
Satadru Palbag,Bijay Kr. Dey,Narendra Kumar Singh
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2014; 12(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
   Statistical Analysis
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded278    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal